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  • Nikon Metrology NV and Pixelink Announce New Strategic Partnership

    Delivering a Selection of High Quality Industrial Microscopy Cameras to Fulfil the Needs of Mid-range Customer Requirements

    Nikon Metrology NV, innovator in measuring and precision instruments, and Pixelink, leader in design and manufacturer of high quality industrial cameras. Today, the two companies announced they are entering into a strategic partnership to accelerate sales of affordable industrial microscopy cameras in Europe. As part of this collaboration, Nikon Metrology NV will distribute Pixelink cameras as stand-alone solutions or integrated with Nikon NIS-Elements Microscope Imaging Software.

    Pixelink industrial microscopy cameras, featuring USB 3.0 connectivity, the latest high-resolution CMOS sensors, and global or rolling shutter technology, offer high quality image acquisition and maximum performance. The M-Series high definition cameras offer rapid refresh rates, crisp live images, fluid navigation, and fast focusing. Available from 4MP to 15MP resolution, the cameras perfectly complement Nikon Metrology NV products and are ideal for use in a wide range of industrial/material science applications.

    Nikon Metrology is very excited about this new partnership with Pixelink,” comments Bill Clement, Business Development Director, Nikon Metrology. “The selected Pixelink M-series camera models will greatly complement our camera offerings by providing each of our customers an optimal industrial microscopy solution to meet their application needs at an affordable price.

    The strategic partnership with Nikon Metrology NV is indeed very exciting. These cameras are fully integrated with Nikon NIS software and can easily be used in conjunction with Nikon’s state-of-the-art vision measuring instruments,” adds Lisanne Glavin, General Manager at Pixelink.

    Camera models now available through Nikon Metrology NV include the M5DC Versatile, M12BC Fast 4K, M4C Measurement and the M15C Documentation. All cameras come in a rugged cylindrical housing bundled with a 2M industrial USB 3.0 cable and Pixelink Capture image acquisition software.

    For further information, application support, demo or quotation requests  please contact us on 01582 764334 or click here to email.

    Lambda Photometrics is a leading UK Distributor of Characterisation, Measurement and Analysis solutions with particular expertise in Electronic/Scientific and Analytical Instrumentation, Laser and Light based products, Optics, Electro-optic Testing, Spectroscopy, Machine Vision, Optical Metrology, Fibre Optics and Microscopy.

  • How to Save Time When Testing Multiple Cable Types

    Changing out reference cables during the insertion loss and return loss testing process to accommodate new DUT types can cause downtime for a manufacturing line and drastically reduce the efficiency of the cable production process.

    With single channel DUTs and reference cables, the issue may seem inconsequential. However, in the modern fibre production line every minute counts; any method that can speed up time per test, minimise the time between tests, and prevent downtime are ways to make your cables more profitable.

    Figure 1: An OP940 insertion and return loss meter with multiple reference cables: MTP, LC Duplex, SC, and FC connectors.

    One way to minimise this downtime is to connect multiple different reference cables to your multi-channel insertion loss and return loss test set in advance.

    Having reference cables that match the different connector types you commonly test or that will be tested that day at that test station will minimise the time it takes to start testing new DUT types.

    Additionally, it allows connector-level insertion loss testing for many types of hybrid cables without a complicated test setup if you have a reference cable that matches each.

    Ideally, the setup includes enough channels to accommodate the different reference cable types at once, as shown in Figure 1. Discuss with your sales engineer your testing needs and they can recommend an ideal test setup and channel count.

    Figure 2: Connector end-faces before (top) and after (bottom) cleaning.

    Finally, having reference cables that are only disconnected from time to time means that you have more repeatable IL/RL results and you can prevent damage to high quality reference cables and the interfaces to the test equipment.

    This will reduce overall downtime and cost associated with troubleshooting and repairing the damage to those connections.

    For further information, application support, demo or quotation requests  please contact us on 01582 764334 or click here to email.

    Lambda Photometrics is a leading UK Distributor of Characterisation, Measurement and Analysis solutions with particular expertise in Electronic/Scientific and Analytical Instrumentation, Laser and Light based products, Optics, Electro-optic Testing, Spectroscopy, Machine Vision, Optical Metrology, Fibre Optics and Microscopy.

  • How a microfabrication researcher uses SEM as a technique to verify nanoscale structures

    Microfabrication, the creation of microscale structures and features, is an essential technique for the creation of next-generation semiconductors, processors and the ‘lab-on-a-chip’ microfluidic systems found in chemical analysis systems that can fit in the palm of your hand.

    Until now, microfabrication has relied on masking techniques such as lithography, which limits the variety of structures that can be produced. However, new research into microscale 3D printing systems is allowing complex 3D shapes to be assembled at scales smaller than ever achieved before.

    The future beckons

    Tommaso Baldacchini is a microfabrication researcher for the Technology and Applications Center (TAC) at Newport Corporation. In his research into laser-assisted nanofabrication, a Phenom Pro scanning electron microscope is an essential tool.

    Newport Corporation’s TAC labs are very similar to those that you would see at a University, and they closely cooperate with academic customers. TAC conducts experiments for academic partners and fabricates micro-devices and components for use in other academic research areas.

    The current microfabrication landscape

    Up to the current time, much microfabrication has been dominated by traditional machining and photolithographic processes, which are planar techniques. According to Tommaso Baldacchini, photolithography can produce an extremely fine structure with high throughput, but the process is limited by two-dimensionality. Baldacchini said “this means that fabricators are missing out on one entire dimension.” Other limitations include:

    • The expense of the instrumentation for producing these structures
    • A clean room environment is often required
    • The number of substrates and materials is limited to silicon and semiconductors

    Baldacchini mentions: “There is definitely a need to break the barriers of these limitations to produce new micro and nano devices.”

    Breaking down barriers to nanofabrication

    A number of challenges are presented when fabricating nanostructures. These depend mostly on the specific technique used to fabricate the structure and the features of the structure itself — such as its size, shape and surface area.

    Laser assisted nanofabrication (Journal of Laser Applications 24, 042007 (2012)) provides a whole raft of unique abilities for building nano- and microstructures. Laser irradiation projected on material surfaces can cause several effects, including localised heating, melting, ablation, decomposition and photochemical reaction — and leads to the realisation of various complex nanostructures with materials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes and even polymers and ceramics.

    Characterisation

    When characterising structures, it is crucial to have a tool that allows precise measurements to examine fabricated structures at nanoscale precision. There is a need to look at the structures topology and uniformity to make sure the ‘build’ quality is up to scratch. It is also important to be able to characterise the new material by determining its surface composition, and even its internal composition.

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is the ideal tool for this type of work, providing the ability to focus in to tens of thousands of nanometers and view small scale and nanoscale sample features. Baldacchini said “A scanning electron microscope is an invaluable tool to characterise products. We can view changes in the samples surface when it is ablated, or we can use SEM to study the topology of a sample we have produced using additive manufacturing.”

    Innovative techniques

    TAC have developed a high-resolution, nanoscale 3D printing technique called two-photon polymerisation. Using two-photon polymerisation allows the creation of extremely 3D polymeric structures which are often tens of microns large with nanoscale features. SEM is frequently used for structure characterisation, as a means of verifying the nanoscale structure that has been built. In addition to this, Baldacchini’s research has involved applying nonlinear optical microscopy, such as CARS microscopy, to investigate the chemical and mechanical properties of the microstructure created by two-photon polymerisation.

    “One of the tools that we developed in the TAC for aiding laser microfabrication is called the Laser µFAB. It is a complete system that enables customers to connect their own laser to the machine and perform different types of laser micromachining.”

    The system is provided with software that enables customers to import a two-dimensional drawing and reproduce the drawing using the motion of the stages with respect to the stationary laser. This allows users to create any three-dimensional objects they want to produce.

    Characterisation with a SEM

    So, according to Baldacchini at Newport Corporation, a scanning electron microscope proves to be an invaluable tool to characterise products and verify nanoscale structures.

    If you would like to learn even more about how TAC utilises SEM to verify nanoscale structures, you can click here to download the detailed Case Study.

    Topics: 3D Printing, Electronics

    About the author:
    Jake Wilkinson is an editor for AZoNetwork, a collection of online science publishing platforms. Jake spends his time writing and interviewing experts on a broad range of topics covering materials science, nanoscience, optics, and clean technology.

    For further information, application support, demo or quotation requests  please contact us on 01582 764334 or click here to email.

    Lambda Photometrics is a leading UK Distributor of Characterisation, Measurement and Analysis solutions with particular expertise in Electronic/Scientific and Analytical Instrumentation, Laser and Light based products, Optics, Electro-optic Testing, Spectroscopy, Machine Vision, Optical Metrology, Fibre Optics and Microscopy.

  • FEG vs. Tungsten source in a scanning electron microscope (SEM): what’s the difference?

    After few years of operating a transmission electron microscope (TEM) in my postgraduate studies, in 2006 I started my career in electron microscopy as an SEM operator for a biological and medical research centre in York (United Kingdom). Not knowing how to operate an SEM before, I found it relatively easy to switch from TEM to SEM.

    My first SEM—equipped with a tungsten source—was getting too old and difficult to maintain. For that reason, it was replaced by two brand new SEMs; the first equipped with a tungsten source and the second with a Field Emission Gun (FEG). The tungsten system was considered the ‘workhorse’, and was used by many co-workers and researchers.

    However, challenging specimens (such as nanoparticles and beam-sensitive specimens)could be difficult to image on a tungsten system due to the lack of resolution. Whereas with the FEG source, those difficult specimens were much easier to image. The FEG system allowed us to see things that we couldn’t resolve with a tungsten system. It was like exploring and discovering a completely new world. Ever since that day, I’ve been in love with the FEG source.

    In this blog, I would like to make you enthusiastic too and explain why I prefer using an FEG source in an SEM system. You can learn what the main differences are between a tungsten thermionic emitter and a field emission source, and find out how an FEG source could enhance your research.

    Thermionic emission sources vs. field emission sources

    • Thermionic emission sources (TEM)
      Typically, thermionic filaments are made of tungsten (W) in the form of a v-shaped wire. They are resistively heated to release electrons (hence the term thermionic) as they overcome the minimum energy needed to escape the material.
    • Field emission sources
      For a field emission source, a fine, sharp, single crystal tungsten tip is employed. An FEG emitter gives a more coherent beam and its brightness is much higher than the tungsten filament. Electrons are emitted from a smaller area of the FEG source, giving a source size of a few nanometers, compared to around 50 μm for the tungsten filament. This leads to greatly improved image quality with the FEG source. In addition, the lifetime of an FEG source is considerably longer than for a tungsten filament (roughly 10,000 hours vs 100-500 hours), although a better vacuum is required for the FEG, 10-8 Pa (10-10 torr), compared with 10-3 Pa (10-5 torr) for tungsten, as shown in Figure 1.

    There are two types of FEG sources: Cold and Schottky FEGs

    For a so-called cold emission source, heating of the filament is not required as it operates at room temperature. However, this type of filament is prone to contamination and requires more stringent vacuum conditions (10-8 Pa, 10-10 torr). Regular and rapid heating (‘flashing’) is required in order to remove contamination. The spread of electron energies is very small for a cold field emitter (0.3 eV) and the source size is around 5 nm.

    Other field emission sources, known as thermal and Schottky sources, operate with lower field strengths. The Schottky source is also heated and dispenses zirconium dioxide onto the tungsten tip to further lower its work function. The Schottky source is slightly larger, 20–30 nm, with a small energy spread (about 1 eV).

    It starts with sample preparation

    When switching from tungsten to FEG emitter, it is worth mentioning that the specimen preparation becomes extremely critical in order to obtain high resolution and high magnification of any specimen.

    In general, samples are generally mounted rigidly on a specimen holder or stub using a carbon ‘conductive’ adhesive. These carbon tabs are partially or non-conductive and can lead to charging artefacts. Hence, carbon tabs might be suitable for a tungsten system, but become inappropriate for an FEG system.

    For high-resolution imaging on an FEG system, I always try to avoid using the carbon sticker. Specimens such as nanoparticles or fine powder should be prepared directly onto an aluminum pin stub for example.

    For conventional imaging in the SEM, specimens must be electrically conductive, at least at the surface, and electrically grounded to prevent the accumulation of electrostatic charge (i.e. using silver paint, aluminum or copper tape). [copper tape?]

    Non-conducting materials are usually coated with an ultra-thin coating of electrically conducting material, including gold, gold/palladium alloy, platinum, platinum/palladium, iridium, tungsten, and chromium. I recommend using the metals and thickness below for tungsten and FEG sources:

    • Metals:
      Au, Au/Pd (Tungsten source)
      Pt, Pd/Pt, Ir, W (FEG source)
    • Thickness:
      5-10 nm for low magnification
      2-3 nm for high resolution, the thinner the better

    Tungsten source vs. FEG source: imaging differences

    FEG sources have an electron beam that is smaller in diameter, more coherent and with up to three orders of magnitude greater current density or brightness than could ever be achieved with a tungsten source.

    The result of using an FEG source in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution, compared with thermionic devices.

    Field emission sources are ideal for high resolution and low-voltage imaging in SEM. Therefore, focusing and working at higher magnification become easy for any operator.

    Topics: FEG

    About the author:
    Kay Mam - In 2006 I started my career in electron microscopy as an SEM operator for a biological and medical research center in York (United Kingdom). With an FEG source, difficult specimens are easier to image. The FEG system allowed me to see things, it was like exploring and discovering a completely new world. Ever since that day, I’ve been in love with the FEG source. In 2016, I joined the Phenom Desktop SEM Application Team, working on a desktop SEM with an FEG source.

    For further information, application support, demo or quotation requests  please contact us on 01582 764334 or click here to email.

    Lambda Photometrics is a leading UK Distributor of Characterisation, Measurement and Analysis solutions with particular expertise in Electronic/Scientific and Analytical Instrumentation, Laser and Light based products, Optics, Electro-optic Testing, Spectroscopy, Machine Vision, Optical Metrology, Fibre Optics and Microscopy.

  • Micro-Spectroscopy Seminar - Hemel Hempstead

    Attend our FREE seminar to learn more about Infra-Red,
    Raman and Electron Microscopy.

    Thursday, June 6th, 2019
    09:00 –16:00

    ThermoFisherScientific
    Stafford House, Boundary Way,
    Hemel Hempstead HP2 7GE

    • Learn how the combination of FTIR and/or Raman microscopy and SEM can provide a holistic insight into a materials’ structure-function relationship from both the chemical and the morphological standpoints.
    • Speak with the experts to help understand challenging applications
    • Get the latest information on Applications such as Micro-Plastics, Battery Technology, Composites, Pharmaceuticals and many more.

    CLICK HERE for more event information and registration details.

    For further information, application support, demo or quotation requests  please contact us on 01582 764334 or click here to email.

    Lambda Photometrics is a leading UK Distributor of Characterisation, Measurement and Analysis solutions with particular expertise in Electronic/Scientific and Analytical Instrumentation, Laser and Light based products, Optics, Electro-optic Testing, Spectroscopy, Machine Vision, Optical Metrology, Fibre Optics and Microscopy.

  • Micro-Spectroscopy Seminar - Dublin

    Attend our FREE seminar to learn more about Infra-Red,
    Raman and Electron Microscopy.

    Wednesday, June 12th, 2019
    09:00 –16:00

    Carlton Hotel Blanchardstown
    Church Rd, Tyrrelstown
    Dublin 15

    • Learn how the combination of FTIR and/or Raman microscopy and SEM can provide a holistic insight into a materials’ structure-function relationship from both the chemical and the morphological standpoints.
    • Speak with the experts to help understand challenging applications
    • Get the latest information on Applications such as Micro-Plastics, Battery Technology, Composites, Pharmaceuticals and many more.

    CLICK HERE for more event information and registration details.

    For further information, application support, demo or quotation requests  please contact us on 01582 764334 or click here to email.

    Lambda Photometrics is a leading UK Distributor of Characterisation, Measurement and Analysis solutions with particular expertise in Electronic/Scientific and Analytical Instrumentation, Laser and Light based products, Optics, Electro-optic Testing, Spectroscopy, Machine Vision, Optical Metrology, Fibre Optics and Microscopy.

  • Micro-Spectroscopy Seminar - Glasgow

    Attend our FREE seminar to learn more about Infra-Red,
    Raman and Electron Microscopy.

    Wednesday, May 22nd, 2019
    09:00 –16:00

    The Merchants House of Glasgow
    7 West George Street
    Glasgow G2 1BA

    • Learn how the combination of FTIR and/or Raman microscopy and SEM can provide a holistic insight into a materials’ structure-function relationship from both the chemical and the morphological standpoints.
    • Speak with the experts to help understand challenging applications
    • Get the latest information on Applications such as Micro-Plastics, Battery Technology, Composites, Pharmaceuticals and many more.

    CLICK HERE for more event information and registration details.

    For further information, application support, demo or quotation requests  please contact us on 01582 764334 or click here to email.

    Lambda Photometrics is a leading UK Distributor of Characterisation, Measurement and Analysis solutions with particular expertise in Electronic/Scientific and Analytical Instrumentation, Laser and Light based products, Optics, Electro-optic Testing, Spectroscopy, Machine Vision, Optical Metrology, Fibre Optics and Microscopy.

  • ECOC Dublin 2019

    ECOC Dublin 2019

    Europe’s largest exhibition in the fibre optic communication technology industry, showcasing the latest products and services, as well as providing an unrivalled opportunity to meet and network with key suppliers and industry leaders.

    Monday 23 - Wednesday 25 September 2019.

    RDS (The Royal Dublin Society), Merrion Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4.

    Click here for more exhibition information.

  • ARMMS RF & Microwave Society Conference

    ARMMS RF & Microwave Society Conference

    Covering diverse topics in Radio and Radar design and test, metrology, medical, materials testing etc

    Monday 01 - Tuesday 02 April 2019.

    Oxford Belfry Hotel, Milton Common, Oxford OX9 2JW

    Click here for more exhibition information.

  • Measure Latency in Optical Networks with Picosecond Accuracy

    In optical networks where action on a message or signal is time critical, latency becomes a critical design element. Latency in communications networks is comprised of the networking and processing of messages, as well as the transmission delay through the physical fibre. Measuring and optimising this optical transmission delay can be critical in diagnosing latency issues in a data centre or maintaining quality control in the production of precision fibre links. Fortunately, the Luna OBR 4600 can measure this latency with picosecond accuracy.

    Specifically, latency is the time delay of a light signal to travel, or propagate, in an optical transmission medium. The latency is related to the length of an optical fibre by the equation:

    Where L is the length, c is the speed of light in a vacuum and n is the index of refraction for the optical fibre.

    Because the Luna OBR can measure loss and reflections in short fibre networks with ultra-high resolution (sampling resolution of 10 µm) and no dead zones, it is straightforward to extract the exact length or latency of a segment of fibre or waveguide by analysing the time delay between reflection events. In fact, the OBR 4600 is able to measure latency or length this way with an accuracy of <0.0034% of the total length (or latency). For a 30 m optical fibre, for example, this corresponds to an overall length measurement accuracy of better than 1 mm, which is equivalent to a latency measurement accuracy of about 5ps for standard fibre. Note that this is the absolute accuracy; actual measurement resolution will be much higher.

    The example illustrates a typical application of measuring any differences in the length or latency of two fibre segments, each approximately 50 m in length. An OBR 4600 scans both segments and the latency of each segment is indicated by the distance between the two reflections at the beginning and end connectors of the segments. In this example, the difference in latency is found to be 95ps. For this fibre, this is equivalent to a difference of about 19.3 mm in length.

    Measuring length and latency is only one application of the versatile OBR reflectometer. For an overview of the OBR and common applications for ultra high resolution optical reflectometry, download Luna’s OBR white paper below.

    Fibre Optic Test & Measurement with Optical Backscatter Reflectometry (OBR)

    Optical communications technology is rapidly evolving to meet the ever-growing demand for ubiquitous connectivity and higher data rates. As signalling rates increase and modulation schemes become more complex, guaranteeing a high-fidelity optical transmission medium is becoming even more critical.

    Additionally, modern networks are relying more on photonic integrated circuits (PICs) based on silicon photonics or other developing technologies, introducing additional variables into the design and deployment of robust high bandwidth optical systems.

    Measurement and full characterisation of loss along the light path is a fundamental tool in the design and optimisation of these components and fibre optic networks.

    While different types of reflectometers are available to measure return loss, insertion loss, and event location for different types of optical systems, Optical Backscatter Reflectometry (OBR) is a very high resolution, polarisation-diverse implementation of optical reflectometry that dramatically improves sensitivity and resolution.

    See what you’ve been missing with traditional optical instrumentation in this white paper.

    Topics include:

    • Reflectance And Return Loss
    • Measuring Return Loss
    • Optical Backscatter Reflectometry (OBR)
    • Luna OBR Reflectometers

    Click here to download the white paper.

    For more information please email or call 01582 764334.

    Lambda Photometrics is a leading UK Distributor of Characterisation, Measurement and Analysis solutions with particular expertise in Electronic/Scientific and Analytical Instrumentation, Laser and Light based products, Optics, Electro-optic Testing, Spectroscopy, Machine Vision, Optical Metrology, Fibre Optics and Microscopy.

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